Intellectual Property Industrial property legislation is part of the wider body of law known as intellectual property. Intellectual property relates to
items of information or knowledge, which can be incorporated in tangible objects at the same time in an unlimited number of copies at
different locations anywhere in the world. The property is not in those copies but in the information or knowledge reflected in them.
Intellectual property rights are also characterized by certain limitations, such as limited duration in the case of copyright and patents.
The importance of protecting intellectual property was first recognized in the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial
Property in 1883 and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in 1886. Both treaties are administered
by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
Countries generally have laws to protect intellectual property for two main reasons. One is to give statutory expression to the
moral and economic rights of creators in their creations and to the rights of the public in accessing those creations. The second is to
promote creativity and the dissemination and application of its results, and to encourage fair trade, which would contribute to
economic and social development.
Intellectual property is usually divided into two branches, namely industrial property and copyright.
Copyright relates to artistic creations, such as poems, novels, music, paintings, and cinematographic works. The expression
copyright refers to the main act which, in respect of literary and artistic creations, may be made only by the author or with his
The broad application of the term “industrial” is clearly set out in the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
(Article 1 (3)): “Industrial property shall be understood in the broadest sense and shall apply not only to industry and commerce
proper, but likewise to agricultural and extractive industries and to all manufactured or natural products, for example, wines, grain,
tobacco leaf, fruit, cattle, minerals, mineral waters, beer, flowers, and flour.”
Industrial property takes a range of forms. These include patents to protect inventions; and industrial designs, which are
aesthetic creations determining the appearance of industrial products. Industrial property also covers trademarks, service marks,
layout-designs of integrated circuits, commercial names and designations, as well as geographical indications, and protection against
unfair competition. In some of these, the aspect of intellectual creation, although existent, is less clearly defined. What counts here is
that the object of industrial property typically consists of signs transmitting information, in particular to consumers, as regards
products and services offered on the market. Protection is directed against unauthorized use of such signs likely to mislead consumers,
and against misleading practices in general.
Understanding Industrial Property. World Intellectual Property Organization – WIPO,
p. 3-5. In: Internet: http://www.wipo.int (adapted).
According to the text above, judge the following items.
“Intellectual property” is an umbrella term which defines a group of laws, including those concerning industrial property.