Linguists and anthropologists have long recognized
that the forms and uses of a given language reflect the cultural
values of the society in which it is spoken. Linguistic
competence alone is not enough for learners of a language to be
competent in that language (Krasner, 1999).
The National Center for Cultural Competence defines
culture as an “integrated pattern of human behavior that
includes thoughts, communications, languages, practices,
beliefs, values, customs, courtesies, rituals, manners of
interacting and roles, relationships and expected behaviors of
a racial, ethnic, religious or social group; and the ability to
transmit the above to succeeding generations” (Goode,
Sockalingam, Brown & Jones, 2000). This means that language
is not only part of how we define culture, it also reflects
culture. Thus, the culture associated with a language cannot be
learned in a few lessons about celebrations, folk songs, or
costumes of the area in which the language is spoken. Culture
is a much broader concept that is inherently tied to many of the
linguistic concepts taught in second language classes.
Through the study of other languages, students gain a
knowledge and understanding of the cultures that use that
language; in fact, students cannot truly master the language
until they have also mastered the cultural contexts in which the
language occurs. Internet: <www.cal.org> (adapted)
According to the text, judge the following items.
In the text, the relative pronoun “which” (L.17) could be
correctly replaced by where.